In the last session, we made it a point
that management is a universal fact and living and management are
inseparable. Now, we will look into some
basic principles in relation to management.
What do we mean by principle? A
principle is a simple statement of fact and the fact is derived from
experience. The experience of one
individual is generally looked upon as opinion.
And principles are not based on opinions of one individual; on the other
hand, if the experiences of many individuals from different periods of time
point to certain common factors, then, those common factors are taken as
principles. For example, anyone who
spends much time and energy on one particular area of experience without
diversion largely, he develops a particular skill. This has been the experience
of innumerable persons of all times. This fact, therefore, can be taken as a
principle. A principle is a fact under general circumstances.
On the same line, the managing
experience of many people who proved themselves successful in their aims has
been taken into consideration in forming the principles. Every principle has as
its basis the rich experience of many many individuals who work with a goal and
achieve the goal.
Students of Management know Henri Fayol
and his basic principles of Management.
Here, one fact must be brought to your attention. Today, there are endless ways in which one can
learn management. The IT explosion has made knowledge of every kind easily
accessible. Sky is the limit and in fact, newer things are getting added in
every field of knowledge. All that one
requires is an aptitude to learn, an attitude to respect knowledge. But in those days of the past, such easy seas
of facilities were not there. They have
to make their own ways and the world of management owes a lot to them. True,
today, there are more scholars of management who have also shown such
commitment as of the older generation.
One cannot miss Peter Drucker, to mention the inimitable. And Stephen
Robins and Philip Kotler and many more. But as and when we need to refer to
them, both of the past and of the present, we will do it. But, now let us
proceed with Henri Fayol’s principles of management. Fayol is a very early theorist of management
and naturally, his principles must give lot of scope for further
improvement. He was basically a mining
engineer with a strong flair, rather, interest in management.
What did he say on the principles of
management? 14 principles of management
he has talked about. The first one he
calls it ‘Division of Labour’. By
Labour, we can understand as the total work that is required to complete a task
so as to achieve the purpose. Even at home, you can see how household work
itself gives room for division of labour. Beginning from earning for the family
to educating the children of the family, there are many tasks that must be
attended to. And it is impossible for one to do all kinds of domestic work.
Father, in some homes, even Mother also earns; cooking is taken care of
generally by the womenfolk of the family.
If division of labour is so unavoidable for a family, it is not a wonder
that any business or any industry must invite division of labour. In your own
college, there is the Principal; he is supported by the Heads of the
departments who in turn are receiving support from their own faculty. Therefore, for any business which involves
many kinds of work, division of labour is a must. And it has its own advantages which cannot be
questioned. We shall see them in our next session.
Can you think of some work which you
have shared with others?