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  In the last session, we made it a point that management is a universal fact and living and management are inseparable.  Now, we will look into some basic principles in relation to management.

 What do we mean by principle? A principle is a simple statement of fact and the fact is derived from experience.  The experience of one individual is generally looked upon as opinion.  And principles are not based on opinions of one individual; on the other hand, if the experiences of many individuals from different periods of time point to certain common factors, then, those common factors are taken as principles.  For example, anyone who spends much time and energy on one particular area of experience without diversion largely, he develops a particular skill. This has been the experience of innumerable persons of all times. This fact, therefore, can be taken as a principle. A principle is a fact under general circumstances. 

 On the same line, the managing experience of many people who proved themselves successful in their aims has been taken into consideration in forming the principles. Every principle has as its basis the rich experience of many many individuals who work with a goal and achieve the goal. 

 Students of Management know Henri Fayol and his basic principles of Management.   Here, one fact must be brought to your attention.  Today, there are endless ways in which one can learn management. The IT explosion has made knowledge of every kind easily accessible. Sky is the limit and in fact, newer things are getting added in every field of knowledge.  All that one requires is an aptitude to learn, an attitude to respect knowledge.  But in those days of the past, such easy seas of facilities were not there.  They have to make their own ways and the world of management owes a lot to them. True, today, there are more scholars of management who have also shown such commitment as of the older generation.  One cannot miss Peter Drucker, to mention the inimitable. And Stephen Robins and Philip Kotler and many more. But as and when we need to refer to them, both of the past and of the present, we will do it. But, now let us proceed with Henri Fayol’s principles of management.  Fayol is a very early theorist of management and naturally, his principles must give lot of scope for further improvement.  He was basically a mining engineer with a strong flair, rather, interest in management. 

 What did he say on the principles of management?  14 principles of management he has talked about.  The first one he calls it ‘Division of Labour’.  By Labour, we can understand as the total work that is required to complete a task so as to achieve the purpose. Even at home, you can see how household work itself gives room for division of labour. Beginning from earning for the family to educating the children of the family, there are many tasks that must be attended to. And it is impossible for one to do all kinds of domestic work. Father, in some homes, even Mother also earns; cooking is taken care of generally by the womenfolk of the family.  If division of labour is so unavoidable for a family, it is not a wonder that any business or any industry must invite division of labour. In your own college, there is the Principal; he is supported by the Heads of the departments who in turn are receiving support from their own faculty.  Therefore, for any business which involves many kinds of work, division of labour is a must.  And it has its own advantages which cannot be questioned. We shall see them in our next session.

 Can you think of some work which you have shared with others?

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