President Donald Trump said on
Wednesday (31 October ’18) in a presidential memorandum that he had determined
there was sufficient supply of petroleum and petroleum products for countries
to "significantly" reduce their purchase of crude oil from Iran,
which is going to face US sanctions from November 5.
In his presidential determination, Trump said
"there is a sufficient supply of petroleum and petroleum products from
countries other than Iran to permit a significant reduction in the volume of
petroleum and petroleum products purchased from Iran by or through foreign
Trump's presidential determination, not an
executive order but a kind of directive issued by the White House to the
members of his administration on some policy matters, comes less than 100 hours
before the deadline set by him for countries like India to bring its purchase
of oil to zero from Iran by November 4.
India has expressed its difficulties in doing so
given the galloping energy needs of its 1.3 billion people. More than 80 per
cent of India's energy needs are imported. But at the same time, India has
taken steps to reduce its oil purchase from Iran, which has already declined
Recently, senior US officials were in India for
talks in this regard. However, US officials are tightlipped on the issue.
The White House also did not immediately respond
to question if India's oil purchase reductions from Iran would be considered
significant. Trump said he will continue to monitor the situation.
Secretary of State Mike Pompeo on Wednesday
said, on the Laura Ingraham Show, that on November 5, the US will put back in
place sanctions that will be very severe on the leadership of Iran. He hoped
that this will convince them to change their ways.
Pompeo, on another show, said that Iran was the
world's largest state sponsor of terror. "They were squandering the
people's money, the Iranian people's money, on these silly malign activities.
And our effort is to get them to change that behaviour".
"The sanctions that are reimposed on
November 5th will target critical sectors of Iran's economy, such as energy,
shipping and the ship-building sectors, as well as the provision of insurance
and transactions involving the Central Bank of Iran and designated Iranian
financial institutions," State Department Deputy Spokesperson Robert
Meanwhile, in its report dated October 29, the
independent CRS said India reduced its imports of Iranian oil substantially
after 2011, lowering purchases to six per cent of its oil imports by 2013, from
over 16 per cent in 2008, in the process incurring significant costs to
retrofit refineries that were handling Iranian crude.
"However, since sanctions were eased,
India's oil imports from Iran increased to as much as 800,000 bpd in July
2018—well above 2011 levels. Indian firms ended or slowed work on investments
in Iranian oil and gas fields during 2012-2016, but reportedly resumed work
after sanctions were lifted," it said.
After international sanctions were lifted, India
reportedly also paid Iran the USD6.5 billion it owed for oil purchased during
"The degree to which Indian firms and the
government of India will cooperate with reimposed US sanctions is not certain.
Indian leaders assert that Iran did not violate the JCPOA and sanctions should
not be reimposed on it," the Congressional Research
Service (CRS) report said.
In June 2018, India and Iran agreed to use the
rupee in order to maintain economic engagement. Nonetheless, major Indian
refiners Reliance Ltd. and Indian Oil Corporation Limited
- citing a decision by the State Bank of India to cease transactions with Iran
as complicating efforts to stay engaged with Iran - have announced they are
considering cutting oil buys from Iran.
"India's purchases of Iranian oil fell
sharply from July to August 2018, and press reports say that the country might
try to cut Iranian oil imports dramatically in November 2018, when US energy
sanctions go back into effect," the CRS report said.